Welcome to the forums and thanks for your post. I'm really sorry that you're struggling so much at your internship.
I think the difference between having anxiety and it being a personality trait is the way that we feel about it. Are we constantly wired and overthinking and in a state of panic? Or is it more of a tendency to feel anxious at times? Is it something that we're completely ashamed of? Or do we feel like it's just part of who we are and how we are wired? I have an anxiety disorder that I have to manage, but I also consider myself a generally anxious person. Being an anxious person or having anxiety doesn't make me (or you) a shirt person.
Based on your post, I feel like most of what you're going through is anxiety.
I think from reading your post that while everything you're going through sounds awful, it also sounds completely normal. You've been totally shoved into this environment where things are expected of you and you're expected to behave in a certain way - only that wasn't part of training.
A lot of people who are in your position have experienced what's called 'imposter syndrome', which is this pattern where we doubt our accomplishments and successes and question things, being afraid that we'll be exposed as a freud, or not good enough. Based on your post, I wonder if this is happening to you too.
I believe that you can survive in your career and be good enough, because of the fact it causes you anxiety and you want to be so good at it. When I think of bad doctors, I think of people who don't think about their patients, don't care about ordering all the tests, or don't care about making things right. Your care and concern is a strength; I think it's just about managing some of that so that you are able to feel worthy enough in your position. I also think that it's a skill, as the more that you're able to navigate the system and the workload (like maybe being able to talk to a patient even if you have no clue what to do next) as well as making so many mistakes, you'll be able to grow and learn.
This has been a bit of a long post but I hope that some of it helps,