You are definitely speaking my language... irritation and anger are probably 2 of my most defining characteristics.
... and I am long past being able to blame it on "teenage hormones".
For me I have found when I am going through these "everything gets on my nerves" periods, I realise that I am at least on a subconscious level angry about something specific happening in my life that I am consciously trying to avoid thinking about... and this results in me taking out that frustration on literally anything else.
I have learned to deal with this in 2 ways...
1) Find out what it is that is I am really angry/ frustrated about and try to confront it rather than avoid it. The "grab the bull by the horns" approach.
Or 2) If it is something that can't be dealt with directly (which does sometimes unfortunately happen) I acknowledge it and accept that the people who I unfairly take my frustrations out on are not directly responsible for the thing that is really upsetting me... and are not personally to blame for it.
This acceptance and acknowledgement helps me rein it back during difficult times a little, and if it ever persists despite that... then I explain it to certain people, apologise and ask them to give me a bit of space for a little while. This method was a little weird for some close friends and family at first, but they understand it now when I say it they listen and now no-ones feelings get hurt by accident.
These methods are the ones that work for me. Hopefully they might help you too.